READING PASSAGE 2
Reading Passage 192 has nine paragraphs, A-I.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E and G-I from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number i-xi, in boxes 14-21 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
i A fresh and important long-term goal
ii Charging for roads and improving other transport methods
iii Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported
iv Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns
v The environmental costs of road transport
vi The escalating cost of rail transport
vii The need to achieve transport rebalance
viii The rapid growth of private transport
ix Plans to develop major road networks
x Restricting road use through charging policies alone
xi Transport trends in countries awaiting EU admission
14 Paragraph A
Đáp án: Viii
Giải thích : Paragraph A: For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use
Rapid growth = spectacular growth
Từ rapid growth (tang trưởng nhanh chóng) trong câu hoi đồng nghia với spectacular growth trong đoạn văn. Và private transport (phương tiện giao thông cá nhân) trong câu hoi chính là thay thế cho car trong đoạn.
15 Paragraph B
Đáp án: iii
Giải thích: Paragraph B:
As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production
Keyword: changes, goods, transport
16 Paragraph C
Đáp án: xi
The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular road haulage traffic
Keyword: EU, countries
Cụm từ countries awaiting EU admission nghia là các quốc gia đợi được nhận vào EU, đồng nghia với cụm countries which are candidates for entry to the EU (ứng cử viên cho EU). Từ transport trends (xu hướng vận chuyện) cụ thể là nói về việc tang trưởng kinh tế mạnh se tăng transport flows (dong/ lưu lượng vận tải) trong bài
17 Paragraph D
Đáp án: i
The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years‟ time, that is by
- Goal (n)= Objective (n)
- Fresh (adj)= First (adj)
- Important (adj) = Essential (adj)
Heading (i) có nghia là một mục tiêu dài hạn, mới, và quan trọng. Từ mục tiêu (goal) đã được thay thế băng objective. Trong bài tuy không dung từ tương tự long-term, nhưng lại chỉ ra cần đạt được vào năm 2020. Từ first (đầu tiên), nghia tương tự với fresh và essential nghia tương tự với important (quan trọng)
18 Paragraph E
Đáp án: v
Giải thích: Paragraph E: In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28%
of emissions of CO2, the leading greenhouse gas.-
- Keyword: environmental
Heading (v) nói về chi phí môi trường của vận tải đường bộ. Trong đoạn văn nói cụ thể hơn là việc transport này chiếm 28% lượng khí thải CO2.
19 Paragraph G
Đáp án: x
Giải thích: Paragraph G: The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing
- Alone (adv) = solely (adv)
Heading (x) có nghia là hạn chế việc sử dụng đường bộ chỉ thông qua những chính sách tính phí. Heading này đồng nghia với câu trong đoạn văn: tập trung vào vận tải đường bộ chỉ thông qua thiết lập giá.
20 Paragraph H
Đáp án: ii
Giải thích: Paragraph H: The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is
accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology)
- Method (n) = Model (n)
Heading (ii) có nghia là tính phí vận tải đường bộ và cải thiện các phương tiện vận tải khác. Trong bài đọc đề cập đến road transport pricing (tính phí vận tải đường bộ) và được đi kem (is accompanied) với các biện pháp (measures) khác.
21 Paragraph I
Đáp án: iv
Giải thích: Paragraph I:
This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance
- Change (n/v) = Shift (n/v)
Heading (iv) có nghia răng thực hiện tất cả các bước cần thiết để thay đổi kiểu/ cấu trúc linh vực vận tải, đồng nghia với integrated approach (biện pháp tiếp cận được tích hợp) se cho phep thi phần của các loại vận tải khác trở về mức năm 1998
EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS 1990-2010
What have been the trends and what are the prospects for European transport systems?
It is difficult to conceive of vigorous economic growth without an efficient transport system. Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase. There are two key factors behind this trend. For passenger transport, the determining factor is the spectacular growth in car use. The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, and in the next decade, the EU will see a further substantial increase in its fleet.
As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production. In the last 20 years, as internal frontiers have been abolished, the EU has moved from a ”stock” economy to a ”flow” economy. This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.
The strong economic growth expected in countries which are candidates for entry to the EU will also increase transport flows, in particular, road haulage traffic. In 1998, some of these countries already exported more than twice their 1990 volumes and imported more than five times their 1990 volumes. And although many candidate countries inherited a transport system which encourages rail, the distribution between modes has tipped sharply in favour of road transport since the 1990s. Between 1990 and 1998，road haulage increased by 19.4%, while during the same period rail haulage decreased by 43.5%, although – and this could benefit the enlarged EU – it is still on average at a much higher level than in existing member states.
However, a new imperative-sustainable development – offers an opportunity for adapting the EU's common transport policy. This objective, agreed by the Gothenburg European Council, has to be achieved by integrating environmental considerations into Community policies, and shifting the balance between modes of transport lies at the heart of its strategy. The ambitious objective can only be fully achieved by 2020, but proposed measures are nonetheless a first essential step towards a sustainable transport system which will ideally be in place in 30 years‟ time, that is by 2040.
In 1998, energy consumption in the transport sector was to blame for 28% of emissions of CO2，the leading greenhouse gas. According to the latest estimates, if nothing is done to reverse the traffic growth trend, CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020，compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990. Once again, road transport is the main culprit since it alone accounts for 84% of the CO2 emissions attributable to transport. Using alternative fuels and improving energy efficiency is thus both an ecological necessity and a technological challenge.
At the same time, greater efforts must be made to achieve a modal shift. Such a change cannot be achieved overnight, all the less so after over half a century of constant deterioration in favour of road. This has reached such a pitch that today rail freight services are facing marginalisation, with just 8% of market share, and with international goods trains struggling along at an average speed of 18km/h. Three possible options have emerged.
The first approach would consist of focusing on road transport solely through pricing. This option would not be accompanied by complementary measures in the other modes of transport. In the short term, it might curb the growth in road transport through the better loading ratio of goods vehicles and occupancy rates of passenger vehicles expected as a result of the increase in the price of transport. However, the lack of measures available to revitalise other modes of transport would make it impossible for more sustainable modes of transport to take up the baton.
The second approach also concentrates on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology). However, this approach does not include investment in new infrastructure, nor does it guarantee better regional cohesion. It could help to achieve greater uncoupling than the first approach, but road transport would keep the lion‟s share of the market and continue to concentrate on saturated arteries, despite being the most polluting of the modes. It is therefore not enough to guarantee the necessary shift of the balance.
The third approach, which is not new, comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network. This integrated approach would allow the market shares of the other modes to return to their 1998 levels and thus make a shift of balance. It is far more ambitious than it looks, bearing in mind the historical imbalance in favour of roads for the last fifty years, but would achieve a marked break in the link between road transport growth and economic growth, without placing restrictions on the mobility of people and goods.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 192?
In boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
22. The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.
Đáp án: TRUE
Giải thích :
Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the equirement for transport continues to increase
- Need (n/v) = requirement (n)
- Grow (v) = increase (n/v)
Câu 22 có nội dung à nhu cầu tăng trưởng đang tăng, mặc cho những sự phát triển về công nghệ, đồng nghia với câu được trích dẫn ở trên.
23. To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant consumers.
Đáp án: FALSE
Giải thích: Paragraph B:
This phenomenon has been emphasised by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from users.
- Câu 23 nghia răng để giảm chi phí sản xuất, một số ngành công nghiệp đã di chuyển đến gần hơn đến người tiêu dung. Câu này hoàn toàn sai với y trong bài. Hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly plant or away from user ( hàng trăm hoặc hàng ngàn km khoi nhà máy lăp ráp cuối cung hoặc người sử
24. Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.
Đáp án: NOT GIVEN
Giải thích: No information provided
Câu 24 dich là xe hơi thì đăt đo ở một số quốc gia ứng cử viên EU vì bi hạn
25. The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
Đáp án: NOT GIVEN
Giải thích: No information provided Câu 25 có nghia là hội đồng Gothenburg Euopean Council được thành lập 30 năm về trước
26. By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.
Đáp án: FALSE
Giải thích Paragraph E: CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by around 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes by 2020， compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990
Bài chữa ielts reading cambridge European transport systems 1990 2010
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