Reading passage 3
the history of the tortoise
|If you go back far enough, everything lived in the sea. At various points in evolutionary history, enterprising individuals within many different animal groups moved out onto the land, sometimes even to the most parched deserts, taking their own private seawater with them in blood and cellular fluids. In addition to the reptiles, birds, mammals and insects which we see all around us, other groups that have succeeded out of water include scorpions, snails, crustaceans such as woodlice and land crabs, millipedes and centipedes, spiders and various worms. And we mustn’t forget the plants, without whose prior invasion of the land none of the other migrations could have happened.
Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction. Nevertheless, a good number of thoroughgoing land animals later turned around, abandoned their hard-earned terrestrial re-tooling, and returned to the Water Seals have only gone part way back. They show us what the intermediates might have been like, on the way to extreme cases such as whales and dugongs. Whales (including the small whales we call dolphins) and dugongs, with their close cousins the manatees, ceased to be land creatures altogether and reverted to the full marine habits of their remote ancestors. They don‘t even come ashore to breed. They do, however, still breathe air, having never developed anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation. Turtles went back to the sea a very long time ago and, like all vertebrate returnees to the water, they breathe air. However, they are, in one respect, less fully given back to the water than whales or dugongs, for turtles still lay their eggs on beaches.
There is evidence that all modem turtles are descended from a terrestrial ancestor which lived before most of the dinosaurs. There are two key fossils called Progaochelys quenstedtiand Palaeochersis talampayensis dating from early dinosaur times, which appear to be close to the ancestry of all modem turtles and tortoises. You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived on land or in water, especially if only fragments are found. Sometimes it`s obvious. Ichthyosarus were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with fins and streamlined bodies. The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water. With turtles it is a little less obvious. One way to tell is by measuring the bones of their forelimbs.
|Walter Joyce and Jacques Gauthier, at Yale University, obtained three measurements in these particular bones of 71 species of living turtles and tortoises. They used a kind of triangular graph paper to plot the three measurements against one another. All the land tortoise species formed a tight cluster of points in the upper part of the triangle; all the water turtles cluster in the lower part of the triangular graph. There was no overlap, except when they added some species that spend time both in water and on land. Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the ‘wet cluster' of sea turtles and the ‘dry cluster' of land tortoises. 'The next step was to determine where the fossil fell. The bones of P quenstedti and P. talampayensis leave us in no doubt. Their points on the graph are right in the thick of the dry cluster. Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises. They come from the era before our turtles returned to the water.
You might think, therefore, that modem land tortoises have probably stayed on land ever since those early terrestrial times, as most mammals did after a few of them went back to the sea. But apparently not. If you draw out the family tree of all modern turtles and tortoises, nearly all the branches are aquatic. Today’s land tortoises constitute a single branch, deeply nested among branches consisting of aquatic turtles. This suggests that modern land tortoises have not stayed on land continuously since the time of P. quenstedti and P. talampayensis. Rather, their ancestors were among those who went back to the water, and they then re-emerged back onto the land in (relatively) more recent times.
Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable double return. In common with all mammals, reptiles and binds, their remote ancestors were marine fish and before that various more or less worm-like creatures stretching back, still in the sea, to the primeval bacteria. Later ancestors lived on land and stayed there for a very large number of generations. Later ancestors still evolved back into the water and became sea turtles. And finally, they returned yet again to the land as tortoises, some of which now live in the driest of deserts.
Answer the questions below
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer
Write your answers in boxes 27-30 on your answer sheet.
27. What had to transfer from sea to land before any animals could migrate?
Đáp án: plants
Giải thích: without whose prior invasion of the land none of the other migrations could have
happened. => câu đầu tiền đã nói rất rõ ràng rằng “không có sự di cư của thực vật, động vật không thể di cư trở vào bờ”. “Transfer from sea to land” trong câu hỏi tương ứng với “invarion of land”, “before” tương ứng với “prior”.
28. Which TWO processes are mentioned as those in which animals had to make big changes as they moved onto land?
Đáp án: breathing and reproduction
Giải thích: Moving from water to land involved a major redesign of every aspect of life, including breathing and reproduction => trong văn bản gốc, “moving from water to land” tương đương với “moved onto land” trong câu hỏi, “big chances” tương đương với “major redesign”
29. Which physical feature. possessed by their ancestors, do whales lack?
Đáp án: gills
Giải thích: They do, however, still breathe air, having never developed anything equivalent to the gills of their earlier marine incarnation. => “ancestors” tương đương với “earlier marine incarnation”
30. Which animals might ichthyosaurs have resembled?
Đáp án: (the) dolphins
Giải thích: The fossils look likedolphins => “resemble” tương đương với “look like”
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 31-33 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this more than once.
31.Turtles were among the first group of animals to migrate back to the sea.
Đáp án: NOT GIVEN
Giải thích: Không đề cập trong bài
32.It is always difficult to determine where an animal lived when its fossilized remains are incomplete.
Đáp án: FALSE
Giải thích: You might wonder how we can tell whether fossil animals lived on land or in water, especially if only fragments are found . => Văn bản gốc nói rằng “chúng ta có thể biết động vật đã sống trên đất liền hay dưới
biển, kể cả khi chỉ có vài mảnh vụn hóa thạch nhỏ được tìm thấy. Suy ra, câu 32 sai vì nó cho rằng “rất khó để xác định nơi động vật sinh sống khi mà hóa thạch không còn nguyên vẹn”
33.The habitat of ichthyosaurs can be determined by the appearance of their fossilized remains.
Đáp án: TRUE
Giải thích: Ichthyosaurs were reptilian contemporaries of the dinosaurs,….The fossils look like dolphins and they surely lived like dolphins, in the water => văn bản gốc chỉ ra rằng “hóa thạch của Ichthyosaurs trông giống với của cá heo, và chắc chắn rằng Ichthysaurs cũng sống dưới nước giống cá heo”. Câu này có hàm nghĩa tương đương với câu 33 rằng “môi trường sống của ichthyosaurs có thể được xác định bởi các hóa thạch còn sót lại”
Complete the flow-chart below
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer
Write your answers in boxes 34-39 on your answer sheet.
Method of determining where the ancestors of turtles and tortoises come from
Step 1: 71 species of living turtles and tortoises were examined and a total of 34 ................were taken from the bones of their forelimbs.
Step 2: The data was recorded on a 35 ................... (necessary for comparing the information). Outcome: Land tortoises were represented by a dense 36 .................. of points towards the top. Sea turtles were grouped together in the bottom part.
Step 3: The same data was collected from some living 37 .................. species and added to the other results. Outcome: The points for these species turned out to be positioned about 38 .................. up the triangle between the land tortoises and the sea turtles.
Step 4: Bones of R quenstedti and P talampayensis were examined in a similar way and the results added.
Outcome: The position of the points indicated that both these ancient creatures were
Đáp án: three measurements
Giải thích: obtained three measurements in these particular bones of 71 species of living turtles and tortoises => văn bản gốc “obtained” (đạt được) tương đương nghĩa với “to be taken from” (được lấy từ)
Đáp án: triangular graph
Giải thích: They used a kind of triangular graphpaper to plot the three measurements against one another => văn bản gốc dùng thể chủ động để nói về việc plot (đánh dấu, vẽ biểu đồ) cho three measurements, tương đương nghĩa với câu 35 ở thể bị động “data was recorded” (dữ liệu được lưu lại, giữ lại)
Đáp án: cluster
Giải thích: All the land tortoise species formed a tightcluster of points in the upper part of the triangle; => văn bản gốc có từ “tight” tương đương nghĩa với “dense” (dày đặc, chặt chẽ). Và “upper part” cùng nghĩa với “towards to top” để nói về vị trí của “points” được tìm ra là ở bên trên/phía trên một tam giác.
Giải thích: There was no overlap, except when they added some species that spend time both in water and on
land. Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between
the ‘wet cluster’ of sea turtles and the ‘dry cluster’ of land tortoises. => amphibious là tính từ duy nhất bổ nghĩa cho species. Ngoài ra có thể liên kết các ý từ các câu trước đó để đưa ra được đáp án.
Đáp án: half-way
Giải thích: Sure enough, these amphibious species show up on the triangular graph approximately half way between the ‘wet cluster’ of sea turtles and the ‘dry cluster’ of land tortoises.=> cấu trúc “between –and” trong văn bản gốc và câu 38 tương tự nhau
Đáp án: dry-land tortoise
Giải thích: The bones of P quenstedti and JR talampayensis…… Both these fossils were dry-land tortoises. => cần 1 danh từ điền vào chỗ trống, nhận thấy “fossils” tương đương nghĩa với “ancient creatures”, đều nói về động vật không còn tồn tại nữa
Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in box 40 on your answer sheet.
According to the writer, the most significant thing about tortoises is that
A. they are able to adapt to life in extremely dry environments.
B. their original life form was a kind of primeval bacteria,
C. they have so much in common with sea turtles.
D. they have made the transition from sea to land more than once.
Tortoises therefore represent a remarkable double return => từ “double return” có nghĩa quay lại 2 lần, tương đương với câu “more than once” trong câu D B. their original life form was a kind of primeval bacteria. (dạng sống
căn bản của nó là từ 1 loại vi khuẩn sơ khai)
C. they have so much in common with sea turtles. (chúng không có nhiều điểm giống nhau với rùa biển)
D. they have made the transition from sea to land more than once. (chúng di chuyển từ biển vào đất liền hơn 1 lần)